Genocide In Australia

Wiradjuri librarian and essayist Nathan mudyi Sentance.

Genocide in Australia was written by Nathan mudyi Sentence (2020), a Wiradjuri librarian and essayist. This piece is stored at the Australian Museum and is an essential read to understand injustice (i.e. the negative operation of power) and intergenerational trauma (i.e. disconnection):

““Genocide brings to mind Hitler and the Jews, not Australia and Aborigines.” – Sarah Maddison, 2007 (1).

The word “genocide” originates from the work of Polish lawyer Raphäel Lemkin who developed the term in 1942 in response to the Nazi policies of systematic murder of Jewish people during the Holocaust, as well as in response to earlier precedents in history of targeting particular groups of people with the objective of their eradication.

Following the work of Lemkin, the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1951 defined genocide as ANY of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such (2):

A. Killing members of the group;

B. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

C. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

D. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

E. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

If you examine Australian history, you can see that the brutality of ongoing invasion and colonisation fits in this definition of genocide in several ways.

Firstly, the killing members of the group, if you look at the work of Professor Lyndall Ryan and her research team has found that there were at least 270 frontier massacres over 140 years of Australian history, as part of a state-sanctioned and organised attempts to eradicate First Nations people (3).

For Ryan’s work, a massacre is defined as the deliberate killing of six or more defenceless people in one operation. If you investigate some of these massacres in depth you can see how systematic they were. Ryan’s work is in no means comprehensive as many massacres were not documented and many others covered up.

Because of colonial genocidal actions like state-sanctioned massacres, the First Nations population went from an estimated 1-1.5 million before invasion to less than 100,000 by the early 1900s (4).

An 1888 drawing of a massacre by Queensland’s native police at Skull Hole, Mistake Creek, near Winton. A Norwegian scientist, Carl Lumholtz, drew it after being shown ‘a large number of skulls of natives who had been shot by the black police’ several years earlier. Image: State Library of Queensland © State Library of Queensland

Many will argue that state-sanctioned physical violence has not ended as many First Nations people still die at the hands of police or in police custody. This was highlighted by the 1991 Deaths in Custody report by the Office of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. Today one First Nations person is killed in circumstances involving police every 28 days (5).

The different state governments of Australia also undertook genocide through their individual Aboriginal protection policies which involved Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group namely the removing First Nations children from their families and forcing them onto state-controlled reserves often run by religious missionaries to be eventually adopted by white families or taken by white families to work for them. The children subjugated by this genocide are commonly referred to as the “Stolen Generations”. This genocide was well documented in the 1997 Bringing Them Report by Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (6).

It has been noted that the forcible removal of First Nations children has devastated the maintenance of First Nations culture as the intention of these reserves and the people who work for them was to “civilise” First Nations children, which meant prohibiting the children from using their language or partaking in their culture (7). Linguist Arthur Capell wrote in 1964: “Government policy looks forward to the loss of Aboriginal languages so that the Aborigines may be ‘assimilated’.

Because of this, these protection policies were also undertaking what sociologist Christopher Powell refers to as slow genocide often called cultural genocide which is the destruction of language, culture, religion and social institutions of a group with the intended aim of annihilating the group (8). As a result of this, as of 2016, only 10 percent of the First Nations people spoke a First Nations language at home (9).

Due to these protection policies, many members of the Stolen Generations, their families and descendants suffer from trauma.

Trauma has been shown to increase the risk of substance misuse, mental and physical ill-health, and can limit employment opportunities (10). As such, the different state governments protection policies could be argued to be Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group which is another definition of genocide.

By 1969, all states had repealed the legislation allowing for the removal of First Nations children under the policy of ‘protection’. In 2008, during his time as Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, apologised to the Stolen Generations on behalf of the Australian Parliament (11).

However, it has been noted that the removal of First Nations by the state has not ceased (12). In fact, the number of First Nations children taken from their families has doubled since the 2008 apology as then were 17,664 First Nation children in out-of-home care in 2016-17 (13).

The term genocide has been previously controversial when being applied to Australian History so why use the term genocide? We need to use the term genocide so we do not minimise the legacy of the colonisation and how the effects contemporarily manifest themselves. We need to use the term genocide to better understand our history so we can work to change the present and stop future genocide. We need to use the term genocide because it is the truth, it is what happened/is happening in Australia –

“Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced.” – James Baldwin”

Source: Nathan mudyi Sentence (2020). Genocide in Australia. Australian Museum. https://australian.museum/learn/first-nations/genocide-in-australia/

Now you know the power of Trauma Informed Care. Let’s turn this framework into a mindset for personal, social and political change. If you are unable to, you might need help first, to get safe or become ‘unstuck’ from trauma. Reach out for trauma informed care. #YouBelong

With love,

Dr Louise Hansen
Psychologist
PhD in Psychology
Human Rights Activist

#HealingTrauma #Justice4Australia #WeAllBelong

Archie Roach – Took the Children Away (1990):

“This story’s right, this story’s true
I would not tell lies to you
Like the promises they did not keep
And how they fenced us in like sheep.
Said to us come take our hand
Sent us off to mission land.
Taught us to read, to write and pray
Then they took the children away,
Took the children away,
The children away.
Snatched from their mother’s breast
Said this is for the best
Took them away.
The welfare and the policeman
Said you’ve got to understand
We’ll give them what you can’t give
Teach them how to really live.
Teach them how to live they said
Humiliated them instead
Taught them that and taught them this
And others taught them prejudice.
You took the children away
The children away
Breaking their mothers heart
Tearing us all apart
Took them away
One dark day on Framingham
Come and didn’t give a damn
My mother cried go get their dad
He came running, fighting mad
Mother’s tears were falling down
Dad shaped up and stood his ground.
He said ‘You touch my kids and you fight me’
And they took us from our family.
Took us away
They took us away
Snatched from our mother’s breast
Said this was for the best
Took us away.
Told us what to do and say
Told us all the white man’s ways
Then they split us up again
And gave us gifts to ease the pain
Sent us off to foster homes
As we grew up we felt alone
Cause we were acting white
Yet feeling black
One sweet day all the children came back
The children come back
The children come back
Back where their hearts grow strong
Back where they all belong
The children came back
Said the children come back
The children come back
Back where they understand
Back to their mother’s land
The children come back
Back to their mother
Back to their father
Back to their sister
Back to their brother
Back to their people
Back to their land
All the children come back
The children come back
The children come back
Yes I came back.”

#YouBelong

https://youtu.be/VeHGlJ32tak
#IncarcerationNation

https://youtu.be/XUyfAme3i_U

“Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced.” – James Baldwin
“Feeling overwhelmed by the amount of support we received overnight! We’re able to fund one more Indigenous Psychology student for a full three year Psychology degree from just a 10 minute appearance on ABC #TheDrum.” – Dr Tracy Westerman AM

If you would like to donate, please visit:

https://www.thejilyainstitute.com.au/about-us/
My partner Marcelo Alegre Rubic who taught me do not let anyone control your life. #YouBelong

Trauma Informed World was inspired by Kopika and Tharnicaa; two faces that remind us everyday of Australia’s cruel refugee system. One of many systems in Australia that remind us of the negative operation of power. #HomeToBilo

Kopika (left) and Tharnicaa (right) were kept at Christmas Island Detention Centre for nearly two years despite trauma informed calls to return them to Biloela, Queensland. Tharnicaa has spent most of her life detained by the Australian Government and is still in community detention to this day. #YouBelong
Trauma Informed World respects and acknowledges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as the Traditional Custodians of the land and waterways on which this educational resource was inspired. I acknowledge and respect Elders past, present and emerging. I honour the continuation of educational, cultural and spiritual practices and celebrate the extraordinary diversity of people and relationships worldwide. This website contains images of deceased persons. There are also swear words in some of the songs presented that portray intense emotions. This website is not intended to trigger people who have experienced trauma. However, if you do find any of the content triggering, each page has a link to Australia’s National Helplines and Websites for immediate mental health support. These are my own personal views and comments and may not reflect the views of my employer.

Australia’s National Helplines and Websites:

https://www.beyondblue.org.au/get-support/national-help-lines-and-websites

To provide the best information possible, Beyond Blue has listed national helplines and external services. All services linked to Beyond Blue are reviewed before they are posted.

Published by Dr Louise Hansen

This is a free educational website on Trauma Informed Care for survival and wellbeing. While each injustice differs, all stories share the same trauma: the negative operation of power. Let’s break the cycle of injustice and trauma together one day at a time. The byproduct of clarity is peace. Joy is peace dancing. Trauma is disconnection. Empathy fuels connection. Knowledge is power: “Love is the absence of judgment.” – His Holiness the Dalai Lama. #YouBelong

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